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Account of the Dances of the Turkijh Dervifes, If I 

When the Scieh of the Dervifes dies they never receive it with the open 

his eldeft fon fucceeds him in his dig- hand ; whatever is offered them, they 

nity, that is to fay to that place which take hold of it with the thumb, 

his father enjoyed. With regard to the which they afterwards keep clofely 

other fons they are free to lead the fqueezed againfl their fingers. They 

fame kind of life as their fathers. never fay I thank you, but onlv 

Thefe monks make a vow of pover- E^vallah, that is to fay, may it be nuell 

ty, and when charity is given them, for God, 

MEMOIR ON THE REGENERATION of certain parts of thb 

BODIES OF FISHES. 

BY MR. BROUSSONET, 

IN certain claffes of animals we ob- mals after having been cut off. This 

fervefome parts fufceptible of mo- phenomenon appears very furprifmg 

tion, which reproduce themfelves after on the firlt view, becaufe numerous 

they have been deflroyed ; but this re- examples have taught us to confidcr 

produdive power is much lefs fenfible that organ as abfoiutely nscelTary to 

in animated beings, the organization the exiftence of animals, though ex- 

of which is more perfect, than in thofe perience teaches us, that it is lefs ef- 

the organization of which being lefs fential in proportion as their organiza- 

complicated, feems rather to approach tion is lefs perfeff. The tortoife, the 

that of vegetables. different parts of which, in their 

Among all the experiments which ftrudure, exhibit lefs perfedion than 

have been made to prove the poffibility thofe of animals the blood of which 

of the regeneration of different parts is warm, lives almoft two months after 

of the fame animal, there are fome, its head has been cut off. 
without doubt, which we are warrant- The parts which prefent examples 

ed to diftruft; and it has happened of this kind of regeneration are in 

more than once, perhaps, that when the greater part of animals foft, of a 

we have imagined that we divided the homogeneous fubflance, and alm.ofl 

fame individual into diflinft portions, like that of the reft of the body. Thev 

we divided only a habitation common reproduce tnemfelves almoft as the 

to feveral, which remaining entire in nails, horns, &c. in animals which 

each portion,have renewed their habita- have warm blood; a circumftance 

tion. Numerous obfervations, however, v/hich ought to make us confider as* 

leave us in no doubt refpeding the re- fomething extraordinary, the new for- 

produdionof certain organs in marine mation of parts compofed of fub- 

animals, in earth-worms, in fnails, fiances hard and foft, and formed of 

and in a great number of other fpecies feveral articulations, 
of the fame iamilies. The parts even This regeneration of articulate parts 

which we confider as efTential to life, has been obferved in animals of two 

fuch as the head, grov/ up on thofe ani- different orders. Some, fuch as cray- 

*' went to the fauxhoiirgs Santais^ to fee the religious ceremonies of the Dervifes, called 
*' Rufai. They began their exercife by turning round, and finging in each other's ears, 
*' after which they agitated thsir bodies with different motions, and in a mod violent 
*' manntr, repeating the words illali^ hou, hou. After four hours fpent in this manner, 
*' they became as it Mrere frantic, a fituation which appeared tome not to be alto'-ether 
" counterfeited. Some threw themfelves on the ground, and knocked their heads 
*' againfl the walls, others foamed at the mouth, fell into convulfions, and cried out, that 
" they faw the prophet. At laft they brought fpikcs of red hot iron, upon which the 
*' mofl. fervent threw themfelves before our eyes, whilft others held them in their mouths 
*' until they became' cool, l^he ceremony concluded wich fome miracles, which the 
" fuperior performed by touching the iick ani the lame." 

fifhes. 



I 



111 On the Regeneration of certain Paris of Fijhes» 

fiib, have their Ikeleton on the outfide, Having cut the right fin of the 
that is to fay, their foft parts are cover- brcaft of a gold fifh, in the fpace of 
ed with a hard fubltance. In others, eight months that part became as large 
on tht". contrary, fuch as the lizard, as the left, which I had not touched, 
the falamander, kc. the Ikeleton is in I repeated this operation on the fins of 
the infide, that is to ."ay, the bony the belly, and ihe refult was always 
)art is covered by the parts that are the fame. It is true that though the 
bft. new fins were as large as the old, they 

It is well known that cray-filh, the remained fome time white, and lefa 
parts of which are joined to the body tranfparent than the red. 
by very delicatearriculations, are liable I made oblique fe*5tions tranfverfely, 
to lofe them, but that new ones grow and, in a word, in every direction, 
np at the end of fome weeks. in the tail fin of different fifiies, and 

The reprodu(flion of the paws of the parts cut alway-> regenerated at the 
falamanders has been traced with the end of a certain time. Fifhes fub- 
greatelt minutenefs, by twoof the moft jeded to thefe experiments loft their 
diftinguifhed obfervers of the prefent equilibrium, and their progrelfive fa- 
age, Mr. Bonnet of Geneva, and Mr. culty became lefs in proportion as I cut 
Spallanzani. We are indebted to thefe their fins. They never recovered 
gentlemen for a number of difcoveries their natural pofition until thefe parts 
in one of the moft curious points of were renewed. 

phvfiology. The regeneration, how- From fome fifhes I cut off the fins 
ever, of articulate parts, has not been as near to the body as poffible ; thefe 
much examined in fifhes, a kind of animals were then unable to keep them- 
animals very different from thofevvhich felves horrizontally in the water, 
have been already obferved, and of Their heads inclined to the bottom of 
which the blood is never above two the vefTel; they wavered, and could 
or three degrees warmer than the ele- not, but with great exertion, refumc 
nient they inhabit. an horizontal pofition. Their fins 

I have cut certain portions from the grew up very flowly. 
fins of different fifnes, and having re- The fame experiments having been 
peated this experiment at various repeated on feveral fifhes, I always 
epochs, I have always found that thefe obferved the fame effeds. In a carp, 
parts reproduced themfelves nearly, which had the edges of its fins gnawed 
It appeared to me, that they grow up by fmall iifhes, in fuch a manner, that 
quicker in fifties that are young, and they appeared to be fringed, I per- 
in fome fpecies rather than in others, ceived, at the end of fome months. 
Having cut away part of the fins of that the edges were become perfedly 
fome gold fifh, I obferved the third day fmooth. 

on the edge which had been cut, a I rem.arked that the fins were rencw- 

kind of whitilh excrefcence ; on the ed generally fooner or later, according 

eighth this cxcrefence was fenfibly ex- as they were more or lefs ufeful to the 

tended, and it foon became a mem- animal. Mr. Spallanzani made a fimilar 

brane, which at firft was only aline obfervation on earth worms, the heads 

in breadth. This membrane was of which were conftantly reproduced 

thicker than that which formed the fooner than the pofterior part of the 

bottom part of the fin, but in proper- body : in the like manner, in fiflies, the 

tion, as it extended itfelf, it became tail fin, the moft ufeful of all, fince it 

thinner, and tranfparent. At the end enables them to execute almoft all 

of three months I could diftinguifh their motions, was always formed 

the formation of the bony ribs, def- fooner than thofe of the belly or the 

tined to fupport this membrane, breaft ; and thofe which are deftined to 

They appeared to be a continuation fupport the fifti at anequal height, and 

of the griftles of the bafe. They at firft to aid it in its lateral motions, were 

feemed to be of a fubll:ance like jelly, renewed much fooner than thofe of 

the 



On the Regeneration of certain Parts of Fijhes, n^j 

the back, in which I could fcarcely In almoft all filh, the cartilages of 

diftingiiiih the new cartilages {qvo^u. the fins and tail are very ftrong and 

months after they had been cut. numerous. If we compare the num- 

The membrane which formed the ber of thefe bony fubftances with that 

firft rudiments of the fin, had dif- of the bones of the paws of a fala- 

ferent degrees of thicknefs, accord- mander, we fhall find that it is much 

ing to the different kinds of fifhes. fuperior. There is, indeed, a very 

It was compofed of two leaves, be- great difference between thefe or- 

tween which were the griftles, com- gans, efpecially refpeding the man« 

pofed fometimes of one piece, hard ner in which the different hard parts 

and fharp, but more frequently of are conneded with one another, 

feveral bony parts, clofely united by If the membrane which forms the 

a cartilaginous fubftance. That the fins has been torn, according to the 

fins may be reproduced, part of the direftion of the cartilages, the two 

cartilages muft be left. If this part parts will unite, and form a kind of 

be entirely deftroyed, new fins will future, which difappears by degrees, 

not grow up in the room of the old Fifhes are often found whicli have 

ones. This I have often obferved in feveral of thefe futures in their fins, 

feveral fifhes, thedorfal fins of which, efpecially in thofe of the back, 

with part of the back, had been This regenerating faculty of the 

taken away, and in the room of fins is fo much the more ufeful to 

which there was formed a plain fu- fifhes, as thefe parts are continually 

ture. expofed to be torn or cut either by 

Though fifh cannot well difpenfe different bodies being dafhed againfl 

with thefe organs, they are able in them, or by the teeth of animals, 

fome meafure to fupply what is want- Their increafe, however, appeared 

ing by thofe which are left. I have to me to be always very flow, but 

feen very large fifh live feveral years, there is every reafon to believe that it 

though deprived of the half of their is much quicker in thofe fifh which 

bodies, that is to fay, of that part are in a flate of liberty, 

which extends from the anus to the My intention, in thefe few obferva- 

tail. tions, has been to prefent a fact. 

The wingsof birds have been com- which, in myopinion, maybe of fome 
pared to the fins of fifh, and the fea- ufe to phyfiology, and to offer a new 
thers to the cartilages of the latter; proof of the multiplicity of the re- 
but there is a very great difference in fources of nature, when it may be 
thefe organs, in refpedt to the man- neceffary to rcflore to organifed bodies 
ner in which they are reproduced; that original flate of perfeclion which 
we know that the feathers never grow they have been deprived of by fe- 
up after they have been cut. condary caufes. 

A Short acg^ount of MOLA DI GAETA. 

MOLA Dl GAETA is a l&nall The fame poet compares the wines 

town of Italy, in the kingdt>cri made from the grapes of the Formian 

of Naples, fituated on the fea, in the ..hills, with Falernian : 

Terra-di-Lavoro, and built on the \^ 

ruins of the ancient Formiae. Horace ""* ~ Mea nee Falernje, 

coiiipliments ^.lius Lamia on his be- T^qiperant vitcs, nequc Formiani 

ing defcended from the firft founder Pocu1^co!les. 

^' The happy utii^ati on of this country, 

-x-.A^v^ ,k wi J • ' • and the mildnefs^of its climate, in- 

Auttore ab lilo ducis onginem, , , ^ , X ^^ . » 

Qui Formiarummceniadicuur, duccd many of the Romans m the 

Princeps— — . flourifhing times of the republic to 

Vol. III. P erea 



11^ A Jhort Account of Mo la dt Gaefa, 

credlagreat number of country houfes on what occafion the rent took place, 

in it, the ruins of which may ftill ftruck the palm of his hand on the 

be feen every where around. Cicero marble, declaring he could no more 

had a villa near this place, and it was believe the (lory told him, than that 

on this coall where that great orator his hand would leave its mark on the 

was murdered in his litter, as he was rock ; on which, to the great confu- 

endeavouring to make his efcape to fion of this infidel, the ftone yielded 

Greece. Formic remained long po- like wax, and the impreflion ftill re- 

pulous, and in the ninth century, it mains, as a warning to unbelievers, 

was an epifcopal fee, but having been This rock is much reforted to by 

deHroyed by the Saracens, the fee pilgrims, and many veffels often touch 

was transferred to Gaeta itfelf, which here, that the feamen may be provided 

is fituated towards the point of the with little pieces of marble, which 

gulph. they earneftly requeft to be procured 

The fortrefs of Gaeta is.built on a as near the fiffure as poflible. Thefe 

promontory, at the diftance of about they wear always in their pockets, 

three miles from Mola; but travellers, purfuaded, that in cafe of Ihipwreck 

who are defirous of vifiting the for- they will be more efficacious in pre- 

mer, generally crofs the gulph, which ferving them from drowning than a 

liesbet^v^en them; and immediately, cork jacket. Some of thefe fuper- 

as the moft remarkable thing, they ftitious people, however, have the 

are fliewn a large cleft in a rock, misfortime to be drowned, but this 

which, it is faid, was miraculoufly does not prevent the marble from 

fplit in that manner at the death of preferving its reputation. In the caf- 

our Saviour. To put this affertion tie ftrangers are fliewn, among other 

beyond doubt, fomcthing like the curiofities, the fkeleton of the famous 

impreffion ofa man'shand on the rock Bourbon, Conftable of France, who 

is Ihewn at the fame time, of which was killed in the fervice of the Em- 

the following account is given : A peror Charles V. while he was fcal- 

certain perfon having been informed ing the walls of Rome. 

I 
I 

OBSERVATIONS on the ANIMAL and VEGETABLE POISONS 

OF THE Southern Parts of Africa. 
I 
from faterson's travels. 

OF the reptiles of Africa, the by nature with this poifon as their 

moft poifonous is the horned only defence againft their numerous 

fnake ; it is of a greyifh color, and enemies. Impelled by hunger, they 

about eighteen inches long : its head, often quit the mountains and plunder 

which is very fiat, is large in propor- the Dutch peafants of their cattle ; 

tion to the lize of the body, with and were it not for thefe poifonous 

fmall fcales, which the inhabitants weapons they would be unable to 

call horns rifmg over its eyes. withftand or efcape from the parties 

This fcrpent; fo truly formidable which in thefe cafes are fent againft 

from the mortal nature of its Lite, ihem ; but thus armed, feveral of the 

particularly abounds in the country of Dutch have been killed, and many 

the Bofhmen and Nimiqua Hottentots, ha 'e barely efcaped with life from 

who life its poifon, in preference to their wounds. 

that of all others, for poifoning their The ufual mode of preparing thiis 

arrows. The Boftimen, indeed, who poifon, is by bruifing the whole fnake 

have no cattle of their own, and de- till it becomes of the confiftence of a 

pend entirely on their bows for fub- gum. A fmall quantity cf this fub- 

fiftence, feem to have been furnilhed ftancc is then tied on the point of the 

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